讲座一：Creativity in Learner Language and its Implications for Language Teaching
To examine creativity in L2 learning we need to consider creativity-as a person, creativity-as-an object, and creativity-as-a-process. To date, however, there is only limited evidence that creative people make better language learners. More important for understanding how creativity works in language learning is creativity-as-a process and creativity-as-an-object. Creativity manifests itself incidentally in the communicative uses of the L2 and also more intentionally in language play. All language learners, when given the chance, will engage in the creative construction and creative use of their linguistic systems. That is, they naturally and automatically work on the raw materials provided by the input, combining words, breaking down multi-word units into their component parts and thereby arriving at abstract formulations which slowly and erratically converge on those of the target language. In this talk I show how creativity as a process and as a product are important for language learning and argue that teachers need to create opportunities for the creative use of language as well as promoting conformity to target language norms and that this is best achieved through task-based language teaching.
讲座二：Grammar Teaching as Consciousness-Raising
For many teachers the aim of grammar teaching is to enable learners to use the grammar of a second language in fluent speech. This talk points to the problems of conceptualizing grammar teaching in this way and proposes that a lesser but more realistic aim is to raise learners’ consciousness of grammatical forms and the meanings they realize. I will argue that the teaching of grammar should be directed at explicit knowledge rather than implicit knowledge on the grounds that it is difficult (perhaps impossible) to intervene directly in the process of building an implicit L2 grammar and that ultimately it must be left to the learner to handle the co-ordination of the explicit and implicit processes involved. Following Schmidt (1994), three different senses of consciousness are distinguished – consciousness-as-noticing, consciousness-as-understanding, and consciousness-as-control. I will use these three senses of consciousness as a basis for a framework for classifying different grammar-teaching activities. Examples of these activities will be provided and discussed in terms of some of the research that has investigated them.
讲座三：The definition and measurement of ‘second language acquisition’
This talk will examine different ways in which ‘second language acquisition’ has been defined and consider the implications for how it is measured in studies investigating the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI).
The importance of distinguishing between measures of implicit and explicit L2 knowledge will be emphasized. The results of a study designed to develop tests that provide relatively separate measures of these two types of knowledge will be reviewed. The tests were: (1) an oral imitation test involving grammatical and ungrammatical sentences, (2) a timed grammaticality judgement test (GJT), (3) an untimed GJT with the same content and (4) a Metalinguistic Knowledge Test. Tests (1) and (2) were designed as measures of implicit knowledge and tests (3) and (4) as measures of explicit knowledge. The utility of such a battery of tests for investigating FFI will be discussed.
The talk will conclude with suggestions for further research into the measurement of implicit and explicit L2 knowledge.
Rod Ellis is currently a Research Professor in the School of Education, Curtin University in Perth Australia. He is also a professor at Anaheim University, a visiting professor at Shanghai International Studies University as part of China’s Chang Jiang Scholars Program（长江学者） and an Emeritus Professor of the University of Auckland. He has recently been elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. His published work includes articles and books on second language acquisition, language teaching and teacher education. His latest book is Becoming and Being an Applied Linguist (John Benjamins). Other recent publications include are Language Teaching Research and Language Pedagogy in 2012, (Wiley-Blackwell), (with Natsuko Shintani) Exploring Language Pedagogy and Second Language Acquisition Research in 2014 (Routledge) and Understanding Second Language Acquisition 2nd Edition in 2015 (Oxford University Press). He has also published several English language textbooks, including Impact Grammar (Pearson: Longman). He has held university positions in six different countries and has also conducted numerous consultancies and seminars throughout the world.